Brief History of Thailand

Thailand, formerly known as Siam, boasts a rich and vibrant history that spans millennia. Its origins can be traced back to ancient times when various tribal groups inhabited the region. However, the first major civilization emerged around the 6th century with the establishment of the Dvaravati Kingdom, which heavily influenced by Indian culture and Buddhism.

In the 13th century, the Khmer Empire’s decline allowed the Thai people to assert their dominance, leading to the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom. Under King Ramkhamhaeng, Sukhothai flourished as a center of art, culture, and Buddhism. By the 14th century, the Ayutthaya Kingdom emerged as a powerful empire, absorbing Sukhothai and expanding its territorial reach.

The 18th century saw the decline of Ayutthaya, which was eventually sacked by the Burmese in 1767. However, General Taksin rallied the Thai forces, founded the Thonburi Kingdom, and later established the Chakri Dynasty in 1782 with himself as the first king, Rama I.

The 19th century was marked by King Rama IV (Mongkut) and King Rama V (Chulalongkorn), who modernized Thailand, abolishing slavery, restructuring the government, and adopting Western practices to prevent colonization by European powers.

In the early 20th century, Thailand managed to remain independent despite surrounding Southeast Asian countries falling under colonial rule. The country officially changed its name from Siam to Thailand in 1939.

Thailand experienced some turbulent periods during the 20th century, including military coups and political unrest. Nevertheless, the monarchy played a significant role in maintaining stability, and the country gradually transformed into a constitutional monarchy.

In recent times, Thailand has emerged as a major economic powerhouse in Southeast Asia, attracting tourism and foreign investment. While its political landscape remains dynamic, the country continues to hold onto its rich cultural heritage and deep-rooted traditions, making it a captivating and diverse nation with a history worth celebrating.

About Thailand

Country Code: +66.

Crime: Crime in Thailand, like in any country, is a multifaceted issue influenced by various social, economic, and cultural factors. While Thailand is generally considered a safe country for tourists and travelers, it does face certain crime-related challenges.

One notable aspect of crime in Thailand is petty theft and scams, especially in tourist hotspots like Bangkok, Phuket, and Pattaya. Tourists can be targeted for pickpocketing, bag-snatching, and fraudulent schemes. Common scams involve overpriced tours, gemstone scams, and fake products.

Additionally, drug-related crimes are a concern in Thailand. The country lies along major drug trafficking routes, and authorities face challenges in combating drug smuggling and abuse. Penalties for drug offenses in Thailand can be severe, including the death penalty for certain cases.

Street violence and gang-related activities exist in some areas, particularly in urban centers. However, the overall level of violent crime in Thailand is relatively low compared to many other countries. Tourists and visitors are generally safe if they exercise caution and avoid engaging in risky behavior.

Thailand also grapples with issues related to human trafficking, particularly in the sex trade. The government has taken measures to combat this problem, but it remains a significant challenge.

In recent years, political unrest has occasionally led to demonstrations and protests, which can turn confrontational. These events may disrupt public order and pose risks to both locals and tourists in affected areas.

It’s worth noting that the Thai government is proactive in addressing crime and works to ensure the safety of its citizens and visitors. The Royal Thai Police, along with other law enforcement agencies, maintain a visible presence in cities and tourist destinations.

Currency: Baht.

Electricity: Type A (2-pin flat), Type B (2-pin flat with earth pin), Type C (2-pin round).

Language: Thai.

Latitude and Longitude: 15.8700° N, 100.9925° E.

Population: 71.6 million (2021).

Prime Minister: Prayut Chan-o-cha.

National Parks

Thailand is home to a diverse range of stunning natural landscapes, and its national parks offer a glimpse into the country’s rich biodiversity, lush forests, magnificent waterfalls, and unique wildlife. There are numerous national parks spread across the country, each offering visitors a chance to experience the natural beauty and outdoor adventures that Thailand has to offer.

Khao Sok National Park

Located in southern Thailand, Khao Sok is one of the country’s most famous national parks. It is renowned for its ancient rainforests, limestone cliffs, and the picturesque Cheow Lan Lake, dotted with dramatic karst formations rising from its emerald waters. The park is home to various wildlife species, including elephants, gibbons, and a wide variety of bird species.

Doi Inthanon National Park

Situated in northern Thailand, Doi Inthanon is known for being the highest peak in the country. The park features temperate forests, waterfalls, and several hiking trails that lead to the summit of Doi Inthanon, offering breathtaking views. Visitors can also explore the Royal Chedis, pagodas built to honor the Thai king and queen.

Erawan National Park

Located in the Kanchanaburi province, Erawan National Park is famous for its stunning Erawan Waterfall, which consists of seven tiers of cascading emerald-colored pools. Visitors can hike through the lush jungle to reach the upper tiers of the waterfall and enjoy swimming in the refreshing waters.

Similan Islands National Park

This marine national park is situated in the Andaman Sea, west of Thailand’s southern coast. The Similan Islands are renowned for their crystal-clear waters, vibrant coral reefs, and diverse marine life, making it a paradise for snorkelers and scuba divers.

Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park

Located in the Gulf of Thailand, this archipelago consists of 42 stunning islands adorned with limestone cliffs, hidden lagoons, and white sandy beaches. The park offers excellent opportunities for kayaking, hiking, and wildlife spotting.

Khao Sok (Khlong Saeng-Khao Sok Complex)

An extension of Khao Sok National Park, this area is home to one of the world’s oldest rainforests and the stunning Cheow Lan Lake, where visitors can explore the floating raft houses and immerse themselves in the breathtaking scenery.

Sai Yok National Park

Situated in Kanchanaburi province, this park is famous for its picturesque Sai Yok Waterfall and offers opportunities for nature walks, wildlife watching, and exploring limestone caves.

Top Tourist Attractions

Thailand is a captivating destination with a plethora of tourist attractions that cater to all kinds of travelers. From bustling cities and ancient temples to stunning beaches and lush national parks, the country offers a diverse range of experiences.

Grand Palace, Bangkok

The Grand Palace is a magnificent complex in the heart of Bangkok, featuring opulent architecture, intricate details, and historic significance. The temple of Wat Phra Kaew within the palace houses the revered Emerald Buddha, Thailand’s most sacred Buddha image.

Wat Pho (Temple of the Reclining Buddha), Bangkok

This temple is famous for its enormous reclining Buddha statue, measuring 46 meters long and covered in gold leaf. Wat Pho is also known for being Thailand’s first public university and a center for traditional Thai massage.

Ayutthaya Historical Park

Located just north of Bangkok, Ayutthaya was once the capital of the Siamese Kingdom. The historical park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and features impressive ruins of temples and palaces, providing a glimpse into Thailand’s ancient past.

Chiang Mai Old City and Temples

Chiang Mai, in northern Thailand, is renowned for its well-preserved old city surrounded by a moat and remnants of ancient walls. The city is dotted with beautiful temples like Wat Phra Singh and Wat Chedi Luang, offering a cultural and spiritual experience.

Floating Markets

Thailand’s floating markets are iconic and offer a unique shopping experience. Damnoen Saduak Floating Market near Bangkok is one of the most popular, where vendors sell fruits, vegetables, and handicrafts from their boats.

Phi Phi Islands

Situated in the Andaman Sea, the Phi Phi Islands are a tropical paradise famous for their stunning limestone cliffs, clear turquoise waters, and vibrant marine life. Phi Phi Leh, with its Maya Bay, gained international fame after being featured in the movie “The Beach.”

Phang Nga Bay and James Bond Island

Known for its dramatic limestone karsts rising from the emerald waters, Phang Nga Bay is a breathtaking destination. The famous James Bond Island, featured in the movie “The Man with the Golden Gun,” is a popular spot to visit.

Railay Beach, Krabi

Accessible only by boat, Railay Beach offers a picturesque setting surrounded by limestone cliffs, making it a haven for rock climbers and beach lovers alike.

Sukhothai Historical Park

Another UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sukhothai’s historical park features the ruins of the ancient capital, showcasing impressive Buddha statues and temple structures.

Elephant Nature Park, Chiang Mai

For ethical elephant encounters, the Elephant Nature Park provides a sanctuary where visitors can observe and interact with rescued elephants in a responsible and cruelty-free environment.


Thailand experiences a tropical climate, characterized by hot and humid weather throughout most of the year. The country is divided into three main seasons: the cool season, the hot season, and the rainy season.

Cool Season (November to February)

The cool season is the most pleasant time to visit Thailand. During these months, which are also the peak tourist season, temperatures are more moderate, and the humidity levels are lower. Days are generally sunny and dry, with average temperatures ranging from 20°C to 30°C (68°F to 86°F) in most areas. Northern regions, such as Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, can get cooler during the evenings and early mornings, with temperatures dropping to around 10°C to 15°C (50°F to 59°F).

Hot Season (March to May)

The hot season is the driest and hottest time of the year. Temperatures can soar, especially in April, with averages ranging from 30°C to 35°C (86°F to 95°F) or even higher in some places. Bangkok and central Thailand can experience intense heat and humidity, while coastal areas might offer some relief with sea breezes. This period is ideal for beachgoers who can enjoy the warm waters and clear skies.

Rainy Season (June to October)

The rainy season, also known as the monsoon season, brings frequent rain showers and thunderstorms to most parts of Thailand. The southwest monsoon brings rainfall from the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. The intensity and frequency of rain can vary from region to region, with the west coast (Phuket, Krabi) experiencing more continuous rainfall than the east coast (Koh Samui, Koh Phangan) during certain months. However, the rainy season also brings lush green landscapes and fewer crowds, making it an attractive time for some travelers.

It’s important to note that while these general patterns apply to most of Thailand, the climate can vary due to the country’s diverse geography. Northern regions, such as Chiang Mai, can be cooler in the cool season, while southern islands like Phuket and Koh Samui might experience slightly different weather patterns.

When planning a trip to Thailand, it’s crucial to consider the weather and pack accordingly. Lightweight, breathable clothing is recommended for the hot season, while a light jacket or shawl may be useful during cooler evenings in the cool season. In the rainy season, having a waterproof jacket or umbrella can be beneficial, along with quick-drying clothing and appropriate footwear.