Brief History of Indonesia

The history of Indonesia is a rich and diverse tapestry that spans thousands of years. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, comprising thousands of islands, and has been influenced by various cultures, religions, and civilizations throughout its history.

Prehistoric evidence suggests that early humans inhabited Indonesia as early as 1.5 million years ago. The first known civilization in Indonesia emerged around the 2nd century AD, influenced by Indian traders and culture. Notable early kingdoms include Kutai, Tarumanagara, and Srivijaya.

The Rise of Srivijaya (7th to 13th century): Srivijaya was a powerful maritime empire based on the island of Sumatra, dominating trade and maritime routes in the region. The empire was an important center for Buddhism and attracted scholars and traders from all over Asia.

Islam spread to Indonesia through traders and Sufi missionaries, gradually gaining prominence in various regions. Several Islamic sultanates emerged, such as Samudera Pasai, Malacca, and Demak, establishing Islamic kingdoms and trade networks.

The Dutch Colonial Era (17th to 20th century): the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived in Indonesia in the early 17th century, seeking control of the spice trade. The Dutch gradually gained control over much of Indonesia, establishing a colonial administration that lasted for centuries.

Indonesia’s resources were heavily exploited, leading to economic and social hardships for the local population. The National Awakening (early 20th century): in the early 20th century, nationalist movements began to emerge, advocating for independence from Dutch rule.

Leaders like Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta played pivotal roles in the struggle for independence. Japanese Occupation (1942-1945); during World War II, the Japanese occupied Indonesia, displacing Dutch colonial rule.

The Japanese occupation was marked by hardships and atrocities, but it also fueled Indonesian nationalist sentiment.

Proclamation of Independence and the War of Independence (1945-1949): on August 17, 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed Indonesia’s independence from Dutch rule. The Dutch attempted to reestablish control, leading to a bitter war of independence that lasted until 1949 when Indonesia finally gained sovereignty.

Post-Independence Era: after independence, Indonesia faced various challenges, including political instability, economic development, and regional separatist movements. Sukarno led the country initially, followed by General Suharto, who came to power in 1967 after a period of political turmoil.

Suharto’s New Order regime ruled Indonesia for over three decades, marked by economic growth but also authoritarian rule and human rights abuses.

Reformasi Era (1998-present): in 1998, widespread protests led to the downfall of Suharto’s regime and the beginning of the Reformasi (Reformation) era. Indonesia transitioned to a more democratic system, with multiple political parties and free elections.

The country has made significant progress in terms of economic development, social reforms, and political stability.

About Indonesia

Country Code: +62.

Crime: Indonesia is a vast and diverse country consisting of more than 17,000 islands and a population of over 270 million people. As with any large nation, crime rates can vary significantly across different regions and cities.

Indonesia, like any country, experiences various types of crime, including theft, robbery, assault, fraud, drug-related offenses, and corruption. Some areas may also face issues related to illegal logging, piracy, and environmental crimes.

In certain parts of the country, organized criminal groups may be involved in activities such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and illegal gambling. These groups can be quite sophisticated and pose a challenge to law enforcement.

Indonesia has faced threats from terrorist organizations in the past, such as Jemaah Islamiyah, responsible for several bombings in the early 2000s. While security measures and counter-terrorism efforts have improved since then, there have still been isolated incidents in more recent years.

Corruption has been a long-standing issue in Indonesia, affecting various aspects of society and governance. Efforts to combat corruption have been ongoing, but it remains a challenge.

Indonesia has some of the world’s strictest drug laws, including the death penalty for drug-related offenses. In 2015, two Australian ringleaders of the Bali Nine drug ring were executed via firing squad, while others were sentenced to life in prison.

Despite these harsh penalties, drug trafficking remains a significant problem.

As technology becomes more prevalent, cybercrime has emerged as a growing concern in Indonesia. Cyberattacks, online fraud, and identity theft are among the common cyber-related crimes.

The Indonesian National Police are responsible for maintaining law and order throughout the country. While they have made efforts to improve their capabilities, they may still face challenges in some areas due to limited resources and infrastructure.

Currency: (IDR) Indonesian Rupee.

Electricity: Type C (2-pin round), Type F (2-pin round with earth clips).

Language: Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese.

Latitude and Longitude: 0.7893° S, 113.9213° S.

Population: 273.8 million (2021).

President: Joko Widodo.

National Parks

Indonesia is renowned for its stunning natural beauty and rich biodiversity, and the country boasts a diverse array of national parks that showcase its unique ecosystems and wildlife. These national parks offer opportunities for wildlife observation, trekking, diving, and exploring some of the most pristine and untouched areas in the world.

Komodo National Park

Located in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Komodo National Park is famous for being the natural habitat of the Komodo dragon, the world’s largest lizard. The park includes three larger islands (Komodo, Rinca, and Padar) and numerous smaller ones, offering opportunities for trekking and observing wildlife.

Apart from the Komodo dragon, the park is home to various bird species, buffalo, deer, and marine life, making it an excellent spot for diving and snorkeling.

Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

Situated in East Java, this national park is known for its dramatic landscapes, including the active volcano Mount Semeru and the iconic Mount Bromo. The vast Tengger Caldera and the surrounding highlands attract tourists for their otherworldly beauty.

Visitors can witness stunning sunrises over the volcanoes and explore the unique sand sea.

Way Kambas National Park

Located in Lampung, Sumatra, Way Kambas is renowned for its efforts in preserving Sumatran elephants and the critically endangered Sumatran rhinoceros. The park is also a habitat for various bird species, including the rare white-winged wood duck.

Conservation programs and ecotourism initiatives allow visitors to learn about wildlife conservation and explore the natural beauty of the park.

Ujung Kulon National Park

Situated on the western tip of Java, Ujung Kulon is one of the last remaining refuges of the Javan rhinoceros, one of the rarest large mammals in the world. The park’s dense forests and rugged coastline provide a habitat for a diverse range of wildlife, including Javan gibbons, banteng (wild cattle), and various bird species.

Raja Ampat Marine National Park

Located in West Papua, Raja Ampat is a paradise for divers and snorkelers, renowned for its breathtaking marine biodiversity. The park boasts over 1,500 islands and is home to an incredible variety of coral reefs, fish species, and other marine life.

Raja Ampat is considered one of the most biodiverse marine areas globally and offers unique opportunities for ecotourism.

Lorentz National Park

This national park, also situated in Papua, is the largest protected area in Southeast Asia and a UNESCO World Heritage site. Lorentz encompasses a diverse range of ecosystems, including glaciers, snow-capped peaks, alpine tundra, and equatorial glaciers.

It is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the endangered tree kangaroo and the birds of paradise.

Top Tourist Attractions

Indonesia is a country with a wealth of cultural, historical, and natural attractions that cater to a diverse range of interests. From stunning landscapes and pristine beaches to ancient temples and vibrant cities, Indonesia has something for every traveler.


Known as the “Island of the Gods,” Bali is one of Indonesia’s most popular tourist destinations. Visitors flock to Bali for its beautiful beaches, lush rice terraces, and vibrant cultural scene.

The island offers a wide range of activities, from surfing and water sports to exploring ancient temples and traditional villages.

Borobudur Temple

Located in Central Java, Borobudur is the world’s largest Buddhist temple and a UNESCO World Heritage site. The temple, built in the 9th century, features intricate carvings and stupas, and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.


Yogyakarta, often called “Jogja,” is a cultural hub in Java known for its traditional arts, music, and dance. The city is also a gateway to explore nearby attractions like Borobudur and Prambanan temples.

Mount Bromo

Located in East Java, Mount Bromo is an active volcano that attracts visitors for its stunning sunrise views and otherworldly landscapes. The surrounding Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park is a popular destination for trekking and nature enthusiasts.

Raja Ampat Islands

This group of islands in West Papua is a paradise for divers and snorkelers, offering some of the world’s best underwater experiences. Raja Ampat’s rich marine biodiversity and vibrant coral reefs attract nature lovers and eco-tourists.


As the capital city, Jakarta offers a mix of modernity and traditional culture. Visitors can explore historical landmarks, museums, shopping districts, and vibrant street food scenes.

Tana Toraja

Located in South Sulawesi, Tana Toraja is known for its unique funeral rituals and elaborate traditional houses. The area’s cultural heritage and stunning landscapes make it an intriguing destination for cultural immersion.


This town in Bali is a center for arts, dance, and traditional crafts. Ubud is surrounded by lush rice paddies, and visitors can explore art galleries, cultural performances, and the famous Monkey Forest.

Lake Toba

Situated in North Sumatra, Lake Toba is one of the largest volcanic lakes in the world. The lake’s picturesque surroundings and traditional Batak culture make it a popular destination for relaxation and cultural experiences.


Indonesia’s weather is characterized by its tropical climate, with relatively consistent temperatures throughout the year and distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its location near the equator, the country experiences warm temperatures and high humidity.

However, the weather can vary slightly depending on the region and the time of year.

Wet Season (Monsoon Season)

The wet season typically occurs from November to April, with the peak of rainfall between December and February. During this period, many parts of Indonesia experience heavy rains and occasional thunderstorms.

The wet season can lead to flooding in some areas, particularly in low-lying coastal regions and flood-prone areas.

Dry Season

The dry season usually occurs from May to October. During this time, the rainfall decreases significantly, and the weather is generally more pleasant and sunny.

The dry season is a popular time for tourism as travelers can enjoy outdoor activities and explore Indonesia’s natural beauty.


Indonesia’s temperatures remain relatively consistent throughout the year due to its equatorial location. In coastal areas, temperatures typically range from 25°C to 32°C (77°F to 90°F).

In higher elevations, such as in mountainous regions, temperatures can be cooler, especially at night.


Indonesia’s humidity levels are high, ranging from 70% to 90%, contributing to the tropical feel of the country. The combination of warm temperatures and high humidity can make the weather feel quite hot and sticky.

Regional Variations

Indonesia’s weather can vary from region to region due to the country’s vast size and diverse geography. For example, regions in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi generally have two distinct wet and dry seasons, while some areas in eastern Indonesia may experience more irregular rainfall patterns.

El Niño and La Niña

Indonesia’s weather can also be influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. El Niño can lead to drier and hotter conditions, while La Niña can bring increased rainfall and cooler temperatures.