Welcome to jolly old England. Famous for Big Ben, red phone booths, rain, and fish and chips (or sausage and chips if you’re like me and don’t eat seafood).

I lived in England as a child; specifically, Cornwall, as my mom is from the UK and my dad was American. While I don’t particularly care for densely populated, large cities such as London, there are a great number of things to keep you busy.

The history of England is a tale of dynamic cultural, social, and political change, dating back to its earliest prehistoric settlers over 800,000 years ago. The Roman Empire invaded the island in 43 AD, leading to a period of Roman control that lasted until around 410 AD. This era introduced new infrastructure, law, and technologies to the British Isles. In the aftermath of the Romans’ departure, a number of Germanic tribes, including the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, migrated to England, shaping its language and culture.

The Norman Conquest in 1066 marked a turning point, as William the Conqueror established a strong central monarchy, replacing the Anglo-Saxon elite with a new French-speaking aristocracy. This period saw significant advancements in government, architecture, and education. The Middle Ages were characterized by periods of conflict and upheaval, notably the Hundred Years’ War with France and the War of the Roses, which ended in 1485 with the establishment of the Tudor dynasty.

The Tudor period was marked by religious turmoil, as Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church to establish the Church of England. His daughter, Elizabeth I, oversaw a period known as the “Golden Age,” with significant advancements in the arts, exploration, and national identity. In 1603, the Stuarts took the throne, leading to a period of political and religious strife, culminating in the English Civil War, the execution of Charles I, and a brief period of republican rule under Oliver Cromwell.

The restoration of the monarchy in 1660 led to the Glorious Revolution in 1688, which saw the establishment of a constitutional monarchy under William of Orange. The 18th and 19th centuries were characterized by the Industrial Revolution, a period of significant economic and social change, as well as the expansion of the British Empire. The 20th century saw two World Wars, the loss of most of the Empire, and significant social change. Today, England is part of the United Kingdom and continues to play a key role in global political, economic, and cultural affairs.

About England

Country Code: +44.

Crime: England, like any country, experiences a range of criminal activities, from minor offenses such as theft and vandalism, to more serious crimes like murder, sexual assault, and organized crime. The nature and extent of crime can vary significantly depending on the area, with some cities or regions experiencing higher crime rates than others.

Violent crime, while a concern, has historically been less common in England compared to many other countries. However, it has been an issue of increasing attention and concern. In particular, knife crime has been a significant problem in some areas, particularly in London and other urban centers, and has seen a rise in recent years.

Theft and burglary have traditionally been among the most common types of crime in England, though they have seen a decreasing trend in recent years. There has also been an increase in cybercrime, reflecting global trends.

Organized crime exists in various forms in England, including drug trafficking, human trafficking, and fraud. These are often sophisticated operations that can extend beyond the country’s borders.

England’s police force is the primary institution responsible for combating crime and maintaining law and order. The police service operates on a regional basis, with each region having its own police force. England also has a number of specialized law enforcement agencies that deal with specific types of crime, such as the National Crime Agency, which handles organized and serious crime.

Currency: Pound sterling.

Electricity: Type G (3-pin rectangular, triangular pattern).

Language: English.

Latitude and Longitude: 52.3555° N, 1.1743° W.

Population: 55.98 million (2021).

Prime Minister: Rishi Sunak.

National Parks

England is home to ten national parks, each with its unique beauty and diverse landscapes.

Peak District National Park: This was the first national park in the UK, established in 1951. Located at the southern end of the Pennines, it’s known for its stunning landscapes featuring moors, dales, rivers, springs, and caverns.

Lake District National Park: This park in northwest England is famous for its stunning lakes, mountains, and forests. It’s also known as the home of literary figures like William Wordsworth and Beatrix Potter.

Dartmoor National Park: In Devon, southwest England, Dartmoor is characterized by moorland, granite hilltops known as tors, deep river valleys, and a rich history that dates back to prehistoric times.

North York Moors National Park: Situated in North Yorkshire, it’s a land of heather moorland, pine forests, rolling hills, and scenic coastlines.

Yorkshire Dales National Park: Known for its valley (dales) landscapes, drystone walls, and picturesque villages. The park is popular for hiking and outdoor activities.

Exmoor National Park: Located in west Somerset and north Devon, Exmoor is a diverse landscape of moorland, woodland, valleys, and farmland. The park is home to the largest herd of red deer in England.

Northumberland National Park: It’s the northernmost national park in England, featuring the serene beauty of the Cheviot Hills and a part of Hadrian’s Wall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Broads National Park: Unlike other parks, The Broads is primarily known for its navigable waterways and lakes in East Anglia. It’s one of the UK’s premier wildlife sites.

New Forest National Park: Located in southern England, it’s known for its mix of ancient woodland, heathland, and coastal marshes. It’s also famous for the New Forest ponies.

South Downs National Park: England’s newest National Park, established in 2010. It covers the chalk hills of the South Downs and a stretch of coastline.

Top Tourist Attractions

England offers a wide range of tourist attractions, each with its unique charm and history.

London: The capital city and one of the world’s most visited cities. It’s home to iconic landmarks like the Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, British Museum, the London Eye, and the Houses of Parliament.

There are also various cultural and artistic experiences on offer, including numerous world-class museums, theaters, and galleries.

Stonehenge: An iconic prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, it’s one of the wonders of the world and the best-known prehistoric monument in Europe.

Bath: This city is renowned for its Roman-built baths and stunning Georgian architecture, notably the Royal Crescent. The entire city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Stratford-upon-Avon: Birthplace of William Shakespeare, this charming market town offers attractions connected to the playwright, including the Royal Shakespeare Theatre and Shakespeare’s Birthplace.

Oxford and Cambridge: Home to two of the world’s most prestigious universities, both towns are steeped in history and showcase stunning architecture. Visitors can punt on the rivers, visit historic college buildings, and enjoy their vibrant cultural scenes.

York: A city with a rich heritage dating back to Roman times, York offers attractions like the York Minster, a magnificent Gothic cathedral, and the historic Shambles, a narrow medieval shopping street.

Lake District National Park: A popular destination for hikers and nature lovers, the Lake District is famous for its lakes, forests, and mountains. It’s also the home of Dove Cottage, where poet William Wordsworth lived.

Eden Project: In Cornwall, the Eden Project is a collection of giant biodomes housing plants from around the world. It’s one of the UK’s top eco-friendly attractions.

Windsor Castle: Located in the county of Berkshire, Windsor Castle is an official residence of The Queen and the oldest and largest inhabited castle in the world.

The Cotswolds: This area is famed for its picturesque villages, historic houses, and rolling countryside. It epitomizes the rural English landscape.


England’s weather is known for its variability, often changing dramatically within a single day.

England has a temperate maritime climate, which means it has mild summers and cool but not extremely cold winters. It also receives rainfall all year round. The weather can often be unpredictable, and it’s not uncommon to experience sun, cloud, rain, and even hail in a single day.

In the summer (June to August), temperatures usually range from around 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F), but they can occasionally reach over 30°C (86°F) during heatwaves. Southern parts of England tend to be warmer than the north. Summers also have long daylight hours, with the sun setting as late as 10 pm in midsummer.

In the winter (December to February), temperatures commonly range from around 0°C to 8°C (32°F to 46°F). It’s colder in the northern and inland regions, with occasional snowfall, particularly on higher ground. Coastal regions, particularly in the South and West, are milder and see less snow.

Spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November) are transitional seasons, with temperatures and weather patterns typically somewhere between those of the summer and winter. In these seasons, you can expect temperatures to range from about 8°C to 15°C (46°F to 59°F).

Rain is a famous feature of English weather. While it can rain at any time of the year, the wettest months are usually October to January. Some areas, especially in the west, receive significantly more rainfall than others.

Another characteristic of English weather is its cloudiness, with clear blue skies being less common than in some other countries.